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This page presents a list of sources which are referenced in the Atlantis section of this website, as well as quotations and links to other parts of the site where you can read more.



BNJ 1 F 26Geryones, against whom the Argive Herakles was sent by Eurystheus to drive away his cattle and to bring them to Mykenai, had no connection with the land of the Iberians, as Hekataios the prose writer says. And Herakles was not sent to some island called Erytheia beyond the great sea (i.e., Ocean), but Geryones was king of a region on the mainland around Ambrakia and the Amphilochians, and it was from this region of the mainland that Herakles drove away the cattle, a labour by no means considered trivial. I know well this point too, that this region of the mainland still contains superb land for pasture and produces cattle of excellent quality. I suggest that it is altogether not unlikely that the reputation of the cattle from the mainland region, as well as Geryones, the name of its king, had reached Eurystheus. Moreover, Eurystheus would not have been able to learn the name of the Iberian king who ruled over the most distant parts of Europe, nor would he have known if fine cattle graze in that region, unless one imports Hera into the story to announce these things to Herakles through the agency of Eurystheus in order to conceal the incredible nature of the story by turning it into a myth.

F 39Kalathe. A city not far from the Pillars of Herakles. Hekataios mentions it in his Europe. Ephoros calls it Kalathousa.

F 41Mastianoi. A people near the Pillars of Herakles. Hekataios mentions them in his Europe. The people are named after the city of Mastia.

F 76Motya. A city of Sicily named after Motya, the woman who informed Herakles of the identity of those who had driven away his cattle. Hekataios mentions in it in his Europe. Philistos says that it was a maritime garrison in Sicily.

F 77Solous. A city of Sicily, as Hekataios says in his Europe. It is called after Solous, an inhospitable man, whom Herakles slew.

F 356Thrinke. A city near the Pillars of Herakles. Hekataios mentions it in his Asia.



BNJ 4 F 19aThey say that the stars on the forehead of the bull (i.e., Taurus) are called the Hyades, while those on the flat side of his flank are named the Pleiades. According to Timaios, Atlas, the son of Iapetos, and Aithra, the daughter of Okeanos, had twelve daughters and one son, Hyas, whom a snake killed when he was hunting in Libya. Five of them perished mourning their brother, and the remainder Zeus through pity turned into stars, naming them Hyades after their brother. The greater number, seven, later (became stars?), with the exception of those who perished, and are called Pleiades. Pherekydes, as I have stated earlier, says that the Hyades are nymphs from Dodona and the nursemaids of Dionysos. [...] As for the Pleiades, which are seven in number, the seventh star is very faint, as Aratos says in his Elegy for Theopropos, because when Troy was destroyed Elektra, the mother of Dardanos and one of the Pleiades, fled the company of her sisters and, having loosened her hair, appears sometimes as a comet. Hellanikos also says in the first book of his Atlantis that six of them mated with gods: Taygete with Zeus, from whom came Lakedaimon; Maia with Zeus, from whom came Hermes; Elektra with Zeus, from whom came Dardanos; Alkyone with Poseidon, from whom came Hyrieus; Kelaino with Poseidon, from whom came Lykos; Sterope with Ares, from whom came Oinomaos; Merope, however, mated with Sisyphos, who was mortal, from whom came Glaukos; for this reason she is faint.

F 19b[Zeus mates with Maia, concealing himself] in a cave; from them comes Hermes Philetes ("Lover"), because he lay with her lovingly. And so is born the herald of the gods, ageless and immortal. Poseidon mates with Kleano; from them comes Lykos, whose father settles him in the Isles of the Blessed, and makes him immortal. Zeus mates with Taygete; from them [comes Lakedaimon ...]

F 20Homeridai. Isokrates mentions them in his Helen (10.65). The Homeridai are a family group (genos) in Chios, as Akousilaos says in his third book; Hellanikos in his Atlantis says that they are named after the poet. Seleukos in the second book of his Biographies says that Krates is mistaken in his belief in his Festivals that the Homeridai are descendants of the poet. Seleukos, on the other hand, states that they are named after hostages (homera), because once the women of Chios went mad and engaged in battle with their husbands; they desisted from the battle after exchanging bridegrooms and brides as hostages, the descendants of whom they call Homeridai.

F 21On the number of Niobe's children, Euripides himself says in the Kresphontes: "And the children of Niobe, twice seven, were killed by the arrows of Loxias." So too Aischylos in his Niobe, and Aristophanes in his Dramas or Niobos [...] Pherekydes says that she had six sons (Alalkomeneus, Phereus, Eudoros, Lysippos, Xanthos, and Argeios) and six daughters (Chione, Klutia, Melia, Hore?, Damasippe, and Pelopia). Hellanikos in his Atlantis says that there were four sons (Archenor, Menestratos, Archegoras, [...]), and three daughters (Pelopia, Ogygia, Astykrateia). Xanthos of Lydia, however, states that she had ten sons and ten daughters with Philippos the Assyrian, who dwelt in Sipylos and was snatched by a bear while he was hunting.

F 135"Just as when Demeter with the lovely hair, giving way to her desire, slept with Iasion": He was an ethnic Cretan, the son of Katreus and Phronia. But according to Hellanikos, he was the son of Elektra and Zeus. He alone was found to possess grain seeds after the flood. Ploutos was born to him and Demeter, according to Hesiod (Theogony 969–74).

F 145Patroklos the son of Menoitios was raised in Opous in Lokris but experienced an unintentional mishap. For he killed his age-mate Klesonymos, or as some say Aianes, the son of Amphidamas, an illustrious man, in a rage over a game of dice. For this reason he came as an exile to Phthia, and there he lived with Achilles the son of Peleus to whom he was related. The two maintained an exceedingly close friendship and went on campaign against Ilion together. The story is found in Hellanikos.



BNJ 31 F 2aThere are two groups of Iberians; one is close to the pillars of Herakles; about it, many say that it is a tribe divided into groups, as Herodoros wrote in his tenth book about Herakles, reporting in this way: "I say that this Iberian tribe inhabits the seacoast of the passage, and even though it is one race, it is divided into individually named groups. First, those living at the farthest reaches toward the setting of the sun are called Kynetes, and eastward of them are the Gletes, then the Tartesians, and the Elbusinians, and the Mastienians, and finally the Kelkianians, and then the straits."

F 4Is it not stupid to believe Herodoros' books about the story of Herakles, when they declare that there is an upper earth from which the lion came down which was killed by Herakles?

F 13Herodoros says that Herakles became a prophet and natural philosopher when he received from Atlas the Phrygian the pillars of the cosmos, the fable meaning that he received by instruction the knowledge of the heavenly bodies.

F 21What is known among us today as the upper stories of the house they used to call eggs, says Klearchos in the Amatoria (IV), explaining that since Helen was reared in an upper story of this sort, she caused the report to spread among many people that she had sprung from an egg. But Neokles of Croton was mistaken in saying that the egg from which Helen sprang fell from the moon; for, though the moon-women lay eggs, their offspring are fifteen times larger than we are, as Herodoros of Herakleia records.

F 22aThe vulture builds on inaccessible rocky cliffs; hence one seldom sees either its nest or its young. And hence Herodoros, father of Bryson the sophist, says that vultures come from some other country unknown to us, citing as evidence that no one has ever seen a vulture's nest, and that vultures suddenly appear in large numbers in the wake of armies. It is certainly difficult to get a sight (of the nest), but still it has been seen.

F 22bHerodoros Ponticus relates that Herakles also was glad to see a vulture present itself when he was upon an exploit. For it is the least harmful of all creatures, injures no grain, fruit-tree, or cattle, and lives on carrion. But it does not kill or maltreat anything that has life, and as for birds, it will not touch them even when they are dead, since they are of its own species. But eagles, owls and hawks smite their own kind when alive, and kill them. And yet, in the words of Aischylos: How shall a bird that preys on fellow bird be clean? Besides, other birds are, so to speak, always in our eyes, and let themselves be seen continually; but the vulture is a rare sight, and it is not easy to come upon a vulture's young, nay, some men have been led into a strange suspicion that the birds come from some other and foreign land to visit us here, so rare and intermittent is their appearance, which soothsayers think should be true of what does not present itself naturally, nor spontaneously, but by a divine sending.



1The Pleiades [...] whose stars are these: "Lovely Teygata, and dark-faced Electra, and Alcyone, and bright Asterope, and Celaeno, and Maia, and Merope, whom glorious Atlas begot [...] 2But Zeus made them (the sisters of Hyas) into the stars which are called Hyades. Hesiod in his Book about Stars tells us their names as follows: "Nymphs like the Graces, Phaesyle and Coronis and rich-crowned Cleeia and lovely Phaco and long-robed Eudora, whom the tribes of men upon the earth call Hyades."

4Orion. - Hesiod says that he was the son of Euryale, the daughter of Minos, and of Poseidon, and that there was given him as a gift the power of walking upon the waves as though upon land. When he was come to Chios, be outraged Merope, the daughter of Oenopion, being drunken; but Oenopion when he learned of it was greatly vexed at the outrage and blinded him and cast him out of the country. Then he came to Lemnos as a beggar and there met Hephaestus who took pity on him and gave him Cedalion his own servant to guide him. So Orion took Cedalion upon his shoulders and used to carry him about while he pointed out the roads. Then he came to the east and appears to have met Helius (the Sun) and to have been healed, and so returned back again to Oenopion to punish him; but Oenopion was hidden away by his people underground. Being disappointed, then, in his search for the king, Orion went away to Crete and spent his time hunting in company with Artemis and Leto. It seems that he threatened to kill every beast there was on earth; whereupon, in her anger, Earth sent up against him a scorpion of very great size by which he was stung and so perished. After this Zeus, at one prayer of Artemis and Leto, put him among the stars, because of his manliness, and the scorpion also as a memorial of him and of what had occurred.

5Some say that great earthquakes occurred, which broke through the neck of land and formed the straits, the sea parting the mainland from the island. But Hesiod, the poet, says just the opposite: that the sea was open, but Orion piled up the promontory by Peloris, and founded the close of Poseidon which is especially esteemed by the people thereabouts. When he had finished this, he went away to Euboea and settled there, and because of his renown was taken into the number of the stars in heaven, and won undying remembrance.


The full Evelyn-White translation of Hesiod's Theogony can be found over in the Creation stories section of this website.


106Or if you will, I will sum you up another tale well and skilfully - and do you lay it up in your heart, - how the gods and mortal men sprang from one source. First of all the deathless gods who dwell on Olympus made a golden race of mortal men who lived in the time of Cronos when he was reigning in heaven. And they lived like gods without sorrow of heart, remote and free from toil and grief: miserable age rested not on them; but with legs and arms never failing they made merry with feasting beyond the reach of all evils. When they died, it was as though they were overcome with sleep, and they had all good things; for the fruitful earth unforced bare them fruit abundantly and without stint. They dwelt in ease and peace upon their lands with many good things, rich in flocks and loved by the blessed gods.

121But after earth had covered this generation - they are called pure spirits dwelling on the earth, and are kindly, delivering from harm, and guardians of mortal men; for they roam everywhere over the earth, clothed in mist and keep watch on judgements and cruel deeds, givers of wealth; for this royal right also they received; - then they who dwell on Olympus made a second generation which was of silver and less noble by far. It was like the golden race neither in body nor in spirit. A child was brought up at his good mother's side an hundred years, an utter simpleton, playing childishly in his own home. But when they were full grown and were come to the full measure of their prime, they lived only a little time in sorrow because of their foolishness, for they could not keep from sinning and from wronging one another, nor would they serve the immortals, nor sacrifice on the holy altars of the blessed ones as it is right for men to do wherever they dwell. Then Zeus the son of Cronos was angry and put them away, because they would not give honour to the blessed gods who live on Olympus.

140But when earth had covered this generation also - they are called blessed spirits of the underworld by men, and, though they are of second order, yet honour attends them also - Zeus the Father made a third generation of mortal men, a brazen race, sprung from ash-trees [meliai]; and it was in no way equal to the silver age, but was terrible and strong. They loved the lamentable works of Ares and deeds of violence; they ate no bread, but were hard of heart like adamant, fearful men. Great was their strength and unconquerable the arms which grew from their shoulders on their strong limbs. Their armour was of bronze, and their houses of bronze, and of bronze were their implements: there was no black iron. These were destroyed by their own hands and passed to the dank house of chill Hades, and left no name: terrible though they were, black Death seized them, and they left the bright light of the sun.

156But when earth had covered this generation also, Zeus the son of Cronos made yet another, the fourth, upon the fruitful earth, which was nobler and more righteous, a god-like race of hero-men who are called demi-gods, the race before our own, throughout the boundless earth. Grim war and dread battle destroyed a part of them, some in the land of Cadmus at seven-gated Thebe when they fought for the flocks of Oedipus, and some, when it had brought them in ships over the great sea gulf to Troy for rich-haired Helen's sake: there death's end enshrouded a part of them. But to the others father Zeus the son of Cronos gave a living and an abode apart from men, and made them dwell at the ends of earth. And they live untouched by sorrow in the islands of the blessed along the shore of deep swirling Ocean, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Cronos rules over them; for the father of men and gods released him from his bonds. And these last equally have honour and glory.

169And again far-seeing Zeus made yet another generation, the fifth, of men who are upon the bounteous earth. Thereafter, would that I were not among the men of the fifth generation, but either had died before or been born afterwards. For now truly is a race of iron, and men never rest from labour and sorrow by day, and from perishing by night; and the gods shall lay sore trouble upon them. But, notwithstanding, even these shall have some good mingled with their evils. And Zeus will destroy this race of mortal men also when they come to have grey hair on the temples at their birth. The father will not agree with his children, nor the children with their father, nor guest with his host, nor comrade with comrade; nor will brother be dear to brother as aforetime. Men will dishonour their parents as they grow quickly old, and will carp at them, chiding them with bitter words, hard-hearted they, not knowing the fear of the gods. They will not repay their aged parents the cost their nurture, for might shall be their right: and one man will sack another's city. There will be no favour for the man who keeps his oath or for the just or for the good; but rather men will praise the evil-doer and his violent dealing. Strength will be right and reverence will cease to be; and the wicked will hurt the worthy man, speaking false words against him, and will swear an oath upon them. Envy, foul-mouthed, delighting in evil, with scowling face, will go along with wretched men one and all. And then Aidos and Nemesis, with their sweet forms wrapped in white robes, will go from the wide-pathed earth and forsake mankind to join the company of the deathless gods: and bitter sorrows will be left for mortal men, and there will be no help against evil.



405Then beautiful Persephone answered her thus: "Mother, I will tell you all without error. When luck-bringing Hermes came, swift messenger from my father the Son of Cronos and the other Sons of Heaven, bidding me come back from Erebus that you might see me with your eyes and so cease from your anger and fearful wrath against the gods, I sprang up at once for joy; but he secretly put in my mouth sweet food, a pomegranate seed, and forced me to taste against my will. Also I will tell how he rapt me away by the deep plan of my father the Son of Cronos and carried me off beneath the depths of the earth, and will relate the whole matter as you ask. All we were playing in a lovely meadow, Leucippe and Phaeno and Electra and Ianthe, Melita also and Iache with Rhodea and Callirhoe and Melobosis and Tyche and Ocyrhoe, fair as a flower, Chryseis, Ianeira, Acaste and Admete and Rhodope and Pluto and charming Calypso; Styx too was there and Urania and lovely Galaxaura with Pallas who rouses battles and Artemis delighting in arrows: we were playing and gathering sweet flowers in our hands, soft crocuses mingled with irises and hyacinths, and rose-blooms and lilies, marvellous to see, and the narcissus which the wide earth caused to grow yellow as a crocus. That I plucked in my joy; but the earth parted beneath, and there the strong lord, the Host of Many, sprang forth and in his golden chariot he bore me away, all unwilling, beneath the earth: then I cried with a shrill cry. All this is true, sore though it grieves me to tell the tale."



2.3This huge serpent is pointed out as lying between the two Bears. He is said to have guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides, and after Hercules killed him, to have been put by Juno among the stars, because at her instigation Hercules et out for him. He is considered the usual watchman of the Gardens of Juno. Pherecydes says that when Jupiter wed Juno, Terra came, bearing branches with golden applies, and Juno, in admiration, asked Terra to plant them in her gardens near distant Mount Atlas. When Atlas' daughters kept picking the apples from the trees, Juno is said to have placed this guardian there. Proof of this will be the form of Hercules above the dragon, as Eratoshtenes shows, so that anyone may know that for this reason in particular it is called the dragon.

Some also say this dragon was thrown at Minerva by the Giants, when she fought them. Minerva, however, snatched its twisted form and threw it to the stars, and fixed it at the very pole of heaven. And so to this day it appears with twisted body, as if recently transported to the stars.


PrefaceFrom Phorcus and Ceto: Phorcides Pemphredo, Enyo and Persis (for this last others say Dino).
From Gorgon and Ceto, Sthenno, Eurylae, Medusa
From Polus and Phoebe, Latone, Asterie, *aphirape [...] Perses, Pallas.
From Iapetus and Clymene, Atlas, Epimetheus, Prometheus.

83When Pelops, son of Tantalus and Dione, daughter of Atlas, had been slain and cut up by Tantalus at a feast of the gods, Ceres ate his arm, but he was given life again by the will of the gods. When his other limbs were joined together as they had been, but the shoulder was not complete, Ceres fitted an ivory one in its place.

150After Juno saw that Epaphus, born of a concubine, ruled such a great kingdom, she saw to it that he should be killed while hunting, and encouraged the Titans to drive Jove from the kingdom and restore it to Saturn. When they tried to mount heaven, Jove with the help of Minerva, Apollo, and Diana, cast them headlong into Tartarus. On Atlas, who had been their leader, he put the vault of the sky; even now he is said to hold up the sky on his shoulders.

152aPhaethon, son of Sol and Clymene, who had secretly mounted his father's car, and had been borne too high above the earth, from fear fell into the river Eridanus. When Jupiter struck him with a thunderbolt, everything started to burn. In order to have a reason for destroying the whole race of mortals, Jove pretended he wanted to put out the fire; he let loose the rivers everywhere, and all the human race perished except Deucalion and Pyrrha. But the sisters of Phaethon, because they had yoked the horses without the orders of their father, were changed into poplar trees.

153When the cataclysm which we call the flood or deluge occurred, all the human race perished except Deucalion and Pyrrha, who fled to Mount Etna, which is said to be the highest mountain in Sicily. When they could not live on account of loneliness, they begged Jove either to give men, or to afflict them with a similar disaster. Then Jove bade them cast stones behind them; those Deucalion threw he ordered to become men, and those Pyrrha threw, to be women. Because of this they are called laos, "people", for stone in Greek is called las.

190The prophet Thestor had a son Calchas, and daughters Leucippe and Theonoe. When Theonoe was playing, pirates from the sea stole her and took her to Caria, where King Icarus bought her for a concubine. Thestor, however, went in search of his lost daughter, and as a result of shipwreck, came to the land of Caria, and was cast into chains at the place where Theone was staying. Leucippe, now that her father and sister were lost, asked Delphi whether she should search for them. Then Apollo replied: "Go throughout the earth as my priest, and you will find them." Lecuippe, on hearing this response, cut her hair, and as a youthful priest went from country to country to find them. When she had come to Caria, Theonoe saw her, and thinking she was a priest, fell in love with "him," and bade "him" be brought that she lie with "him." But she, because she was a woman, said it could not be done. Then Theonoe in anger gave orders that the priest be shut in a room and that someone from the servants’ quarters come to kill him. The old man Thestor was sent unknowingly to his daughter to do the slaying. Theonoe did not recognize him and gave him a sword, bidding him kill the priest. When he had entered, sword in hand, he said his name was Thestor; he had lost his two daughters, Leucippe and Theonoe, and had come to this pitch of misfortune, that he had been ordered to commit a crime. When he had turned the weapon (?) and was about to kill himself, Leucippe, hearing her father's name, wrested the sword from him. In order to go and kill the queen, she called on her father Thestor to aid her. Theonoe, when she heard her father’s name, gave proof she was his daughter. Then Icarus the king, after this recognition, sent him back into his country with gifts.

150They destroyed Phaethon, son of Sol by Clymene. Laomedon, son of Ilus by Leucippe. Oenomaus, son of Mars by Asterie, daughter of Atlas. Diomede, son of Mars, by the same. Hippolytus, son of Theseus, by the Amazon Antiope. Amphiaraus, son of Oicleus by Hypermnestra, daughter of Thestius. His own mares devoured Glaucus, son of Sisyphus, at the funeral games of Pelias. Horses destroyed Iasion, son of Jove by Electra, daughter of Atlas. Salmoneus, who sitting in his chariot, imitated the thunder, was struck by a thunderbolt, and the chariot, too.



68Now, while the most celebrated of our wars was the one against the Persians, yet certainly our deeds of old offer evidence no less strong for those who dispute over ancestral rights. For while Hellas was still insignificant, our territory was invaded by the Thracians, led by Eumolpus, son of Poseidon, and by the Scythians, led by the Amazons, the daughters of Ares - not at the same time, but during the period when both races were trying to extend their dominion over Europe; for though they hated the whole Hellenic race, they raised complaints against us in particular, thinking that in this way they would wage war against one state only, but would at the same time impose their power on all the states of Hellas. 69Of a truth they were not successful; nay, in this conflict against our forefathers alone they were as utterly overwhelmed as if they had fought the whole world. How great were the disasters which befell them is evident; for the tradition respecting them would not have persisted for so long a time if what was then done had not been without parallel. 70At any rate, we are told regarding the Amazons that of all who came not one returned again, while those who had remained at home were expelled from power because of the disaster here; and we are told regarding the Thracians that, whereas at one time they dwelt beside us on our very borders, they withdrew so far from us in consequence of that expedition that in the spaces left between their land and ours many nations, races of every kind, and great cities have been established.


111When Heracles saw that Hellas was rife with wars and factions and many other afflictions, he first brought these troubles to an end and reconciled the cities with each other, and then showed by his example to coming generations with whom and against whom it was their duty to go to war. For he made an expedition against Troy, which was in those days the strongest power in Asia, and so far did he excel in generalship those who at a later time waged war against this same city, that, 112while they with the combined strength of Hellas found it difficult to take Troy after a siege which lasted ten years, he, on the other hand, in less than as many days, and with a small expedition, easily took the city by storm. After this, he put to death to a man all the princes of the tribes who dwelt along the shores of both continents; and these he could never have destroyed had he not first conquered their armies. When he had done these things, he set up the Pillars of Heracles, as they are called, to be a trophy of victory over the barbarians, a monument to his own valor and the perils he had surmounted, and to mark the bounds of the territory of the Hellenes.


41Now in the case of Sparta I can cite no instance of this kind, for in times past no nation stronger than ourselves ever invaded our territory; but in the case of other states there are many such examples which one might use, and especially is this true of the city of the Athenians. 42For we shall find that as a result of dictating to others they lost repute with the Hellenes, while by defending themselves against insolent invaders they won fame among all mankind. Now if I were to recount the wars of old which they fought against the Amazons or the Thracians or the Peloponnesians who under the leadership of Eurystheus invaded Attica, no doubt I should be thought to speak on matters ancient and remote from the present situation; but in their war against the Persians, who does not know from what hardships they arose to great good-fortune? 43For they alone of those who dwelt outside of the Peloponnesus, although they saw that the strength of the barbarians was irresistible, did not think it honorable to consider the terms imposed upon them, but straightway chose to see their city ravaged rather than enslaved. Leaving their own country, and adopting Freedom as their fatherland, they shared the dangers of war with us, and wrought such a change in their fortunes that, after being deprived of their own possessions for but a few days, they became for many years masters of the rest of the world.


15So Busiris thus began, as wise men should, by occupying the fairest country and also by finding sustenance sufficient for his subjects. Afterwards, he divided them into classes14: some he appointed to priestly services, others he turned to the arts and crafts, and others he forced to practise the arts of war. He judged that, while necessities and superfluous products must be provided by the land and the arts, the safest means of protecting these was practice in warfare and reverence for the gods.


250For if one were to show them a discourse of the latter sort before I had explained it to them, they would inevitably hate you and dislike you for having written in denunciation of them. As it is, I think that while most of the Lacedaemonians will continue to abide in the ways to which they have been faithful in past times and will pay no more attention to what is written in Athens than to what is said beyond the Pillars of Heracles, 251yet the most intelligent among them, who possess and admire certain of your writings, will not misapprehend anything of what is said in this discourse if they can find someone who will interpret it to them, and if they can take the time to ponder over it by themselves; on the contrary, they will appreciate the praise given to their own city, which is based on proof, while they will dismiss with contempt the abuse, which is uttered at random with no regard to the facts, and is offensive only in the words employed; and they will think that envy slipped in the calumnies which are found in your treatise, 252but that you have recorded the exploits and the battles in which they themselves take great pride and because of which they enjoy a high repute with the rest of the world, and that you have made these achievements memorable by collecting them all and placing them side by side with each other and so have brought it about that many of the Spartans long to read and peruse your accounts of them, not because they crave to hear of their own deeds, 253but because they wish to hear how you have dealt with them.



89.8Whether Kritias, one of the Thirty who heard Sokrates, or someone else says it, it makes no difference to us. They say that there was also another Kritias, a sophist, whose writings too have been handed down, as Alexander says. For [Alexander says that the Kritias] of the Thirty wrote nothing except the Well Balanced Constitutions.



1.747 The full account of Phaethon from Ovid's Metamorphoses can be found elsewhere.

6.172And while they worship, Niobe comes there, surrounded with a troup that follow her, and most conspicuous in her purple robe, bright with inwoven threads of yellow gold. Beautiful in her anger, she tosses back her graceful head. The glory of her hair shines on her shoulders. Standing forth, she looks upon them with her haughty eyes, and taunts them, "Madness has prevailed on you to worship some imagined Gods of Heaven, which you have only heard of; but the Gods that truly are on earth, and can be seen, are all neglected! Come, explain to me, why is Latona worshiped and adored, and frankincense not offered unto me? For my divinity is known to you. Tantalus was my father, who alone approached the tables of the Gods in heaven; my mother, sister of the Pleiades, was daughter of huge Atlas, who supports the world upon his shoulders; I can boast of Jupiter as father of my sire, I count him also as my father-in-law. The peoples of my Phrygia dread my power, and I am mistress of the palace built by Cadmus. By my husband, I am queen of those great walls that reared themselves to the sweet music of his sounding lyre. We rule together all the people they encompass and defend. And everywhere my gaze is turned, an evidence of wealth is witnessed. In my features you can see the beauty of a goddess, but above that majesty is all the glory due to me, the mother of my seven sons and daughters seven. And the time will come when by their marriage they will magnify the circle of my power invincible."

Sir Graham